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Protecting Children from Sexual Abuse
Follow me on Twitter. Friend me on Faceook. Here are a few ideas that seem to be appearing more and more often in the field of child development that could help prevent child sexual abuse as well: Ensure children have access to good programs that teach them about appropriate touch and that show them how to disclose and to whom when they need to. I particularly love programs that put uniformed police officers into elementary schools helping with social studies and other parts of the curriculum.
It makes them far less scary to children and much more approachable when something bad happens. Take away the stigma of sexual abuse. The more we adults are embarrassed to talk about it, and the more we blame the victims with silly notions that they somehow invited the abuse, the more children will continue to cover it up. As parents, we need to stop being so protective and start helping our children learn to cope with tough situations themselves.
That is too late for our kids to have learned the right way to avoid dangerous situations. Good prevention begins early with children talking about their bodies, trusting adults, and making decisions for themselves with a parent in the background to help them deal with the consequences when the consequences are still small enough to be fixed. We need to stop sexualizing children in our popular press and on social media. And we need to tell parents who dress their children in sexually suggestive clothing that this is not appropriate. Finally, whether we like it or not, we need to work with the perpetrators.
There is no point just incarcerating someone who has committed sexual abuse. We cannot avoid naming the problem. We need to identify the risks, jail if necessary, but also ensure proper treatment so that those who are convicted get the support they need to change their behavior. You skirted over the biggest elephant in the room: incest. The mother of an incest victim would be highly motivated to cover up the abuse or deny it; she would want to avoid at any cost the total devastation that going public would cause: the public shame of an arrest and trial, the inevitable financial ruin, the break up of her family and likely divorce if her husband is convicted and incarcerated, and If her teenage son is the perpetrator, having his life-trajectory negatively skewed by being labeled a child predator.
It makes sense Submitted by Mary on January 25, - pm.source site
Child sexual abuse and the church: Impact on children and youth
How to protect them from that seems a very difficult thing to accomplish. Actually, in your first post Submitted by Anonymous A on January 27, - pm. Post Comment Your name. E-mail The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly. Notify me when new comments are posted. All comments. Replies to my comment.
Leave this field blank. About the Author. In Print:. Professional Website. View Author Profile. Amongst the significant challenges to addressing ACEs including CSA, other forms of abuse, maltreatment, and neglect in India are its huge population of children, poor child welfare service coverage, poverty, gender inequality, and illiteracy.
The limited literature in India suggests that CSA does not necessarily occur in isolation and may co-occur with other forms of ACEs in the same child [ 16 , 17 , 93 ]. There is a need to assess the associations between CSA and physical health outcomes like menstrual irregularities; behavioral issues that persist in adult life of CSA survivors including increased risk of perpetration of CSA, increased participation in sex work, re-victimization as adults, high risk sexual behaviors and psychosexual dysfunctions; and delays in developmental milestones leading to deficits in motor, emotional, behavioural, language, psychosocial, social, and cognitive skills among children in Indian context as has been indicated in global literature on consequences of CSA [ 11 , 81 ].
The qualitative literature [ 58 , 59 , 62 ], included in the review, based on the experiences of sexually abused girls indicated that the reactions of the families to the discovery of CSA often caused re-traumatization and hindered the healing process. More research is needed to understand the complex familial and social factors that influence the wellbeing among victims of CSA to inform programs and policies for prevention and treatment of CSA victims. The review also highlights the need for research aimed at designing and evaluating programs for primary prevention and treatment of CSA victims.
The high prevalence of CSA in India calls for a multi-faceted ecological approach that also includes strategies for impacting policies, laws, and social and cultural norms of patriarchy and gender inequality that surround CSA [ 16 , 17 , 94 ]. There may be potential value in primary prevention approaches, such as adopted in Yuva Mitr friend of the youth , through multiple components like information dissemination to young people and universal educational programs that could be delivered in schools and aimed at potential victims of all genders, their parents, professionals, and the general public about CSA [ 75 ].
In addition, a culturally tailored intervention module with specific adaptation of trauma and abuse-focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy CBT could also be developed for an Indian context for victims of CSA [ 95 ]. In addition to the limited causal inferences that can be drawn due to near exclusive cross-sectional study designs of most studies, this systematic review suffers some further limitations. Publication bias is a common and well-documented problem in systematic reviews. Despite comprehensive efforts to retrieve all the available data on CSA prevalence rates in India, we might still have failed to identify some non-referenced publications such as reports from civil society organizations that work in the field of CSA in India, other grey literature and literature such as journalistic articles, commentaries, and other reports available in local languages of India.
Furthermore, it is likely that the results of this review are biased because not all unpublished data could be accessed. Furthermore, methodological weaknesses of studies limit the reliability and validity of the results. In addition, we included studies whose main aim was to evaluate the CSA experience among Indian children along with studies whose primary objectives may not have been CSA but included CSA as a covariate. However, our goal was not to critically evaluate each individual study, but to comprehensively review the information currently provided in the literature.
Despite its limitations, this systematic review makes a significant contribution to research on CSA in India, since it systematically and comprehensively reviewed, structured, and summarized previous research on the prevalence of CSA, and in doing so, provides a future research agenda. CSA is a dark reality that is highly prevalent in India and adversely impacts health. Our literature review underscores the need for the development of a standardized definition of CSA and a validated tool for accurate measurement of CSA across India. Moreover, additional in-depth studies of CSA among the general and specific populations like commercial sex workers and MSMs are needed to develop effective ecological models for prevention and treatment of CSA that are sensitive to the diversity of vulnerabilities of children and adolescents in the Indian context.
Furthermore, there is definitely a great need for more research concerning the perpetrators of child sexual abuse, including gathering more knowledge about paedophilia in India, in order to enhance primary preventive strategies. We would like to thank the advisory board members and experts for their constructive feedback on the study protocol: Dr. Vidya Reddy Tulir, Chennai ; Dr. Bela Ganatra and Dr.
The funder Bayer Crop Science, Mumbai, India provided support in the form of salaries for authors RD and DP , but did not have any additional role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The commercial affiliation Sambodhi Research and Communications Pvt. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. PLoS One. Published online Oct 9. Ameeta S. Alexander C. Tsai, Editor.
Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Competing Interests: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest financial or non-financial with regard to the study. The interpretation and presentation of the facts and figures given in the paper is not influenced by any personal or financial relationship with any individual or organisation. The funding agency or commercial affiliation Sambodhi Research and Communications Pvt. There are no patents, products in development or marketed products to declare.
Received Nov 12; Accepted Sep This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. S1 File: Coding sheet for synthesis of qualitative data. S2 File: List of artciles that could not be retrieved. Findings Fifty-one studies met inclusion criteria for the review.
Methods The research questions, inclusion criteria, search strategy, search terms, search engines, and study protocol for the proposed study were developed in consultation with a panel of experts who have been working in the field of sexual violence in India names included in Acknowledgments and along the guidelines as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses PRISMA [ 23 ] S1 Checklist. Open in a separate window. Study selection We included studies that were published in English between January 1, and January 1, , involved human subjects, and collected primary data on experience, perpetration, or response to CSA in India.
Data extraction and quality assessment The eligible articles went through a standardized data extraction and quality assessment process. Table 8 Characteristics of quantitative and mixed-method studies included in the review with populations at risk. Data based on an Intervention Study. Table 9 Summary of qualitative studies and mixed-methods studies included in the review. Table 10 Summary of qualitative studies and mixed-methods studies included in the review.
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Table 7 Characteristics of quantitative and mixed-method studies included in the review with populations at risk. Table 11 Quality assessments of quantitative and mixed-method studies. What were those biases? Table 14 Comprehensiveness of reporting of qualitative and mixed-methods studies. Table 12 Quality assessments of quantitative and mixed-method studies. Results Article yield of systematic search Fig 1 illustrates the flow chart of articles.
Fig 1. Study designs and study populations Among the 51 studies included in the review, 35 studies were based purely on quantitative methods, 11 studies were based purely on qualitative methods while five studies utilized mixed-methods. Table 6 Characteristics of quantitative and mixed-method studies included in the review with populations at risk.
Determinants of CSA The social-ecological model guided the emergence of determinants of CSA as one of the themes in the synthesis of qualitative data across studies included in this review as shown in Fig 2. Fig 2. Synthesis of qualitative findings guided by social-ecological framework. Interventions for CSA in India Our review found only five intervention studies [ 54 , 57 , 65 , 66 , 75 ].
Table 13 Quality assessments of quantitative and mixed-method studies. Discussions Our systematic review summarizes what is known about the characteristics of CSA and the status of the research on CSA in India during the last decade. Conclusions CSA is a dark reality that is highly prevalent in India and adversely impacts health.
Understanding Online Child Sexual Abuse and How to Talk to Children About it
DOC Click here for additional data file. S1 File Coding sheet for synthesis of qualitative data. XLSX Click here for additional data file. S2 File List of artciles that could not be retrieved. Acknowledgments We would like to thank the advisory board members and experts for their constructive feedback on the study protocol: Dr.
Funding Statement The funder Bayer Crop Science, Mumbai, India provided support in the form of salaries for authors RD and DP , but did not have any additional role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Data Availability All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.
References 1. World Health Organisation. Geneva Switzerland : World Health Organisation, Putnam FW. Ten-year research update review: child sexual abuse. Online "predators" and their victims: myths, realities, and implications for prevention and treatment. The American psychologist. The current prevalence of child sexual abuse worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Public Health. The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse: A continuation of Finkelhor A global perspective on child sexual abuse: meta-analysis of prevalence around the world.
Child maltreatment. Child sexual abuse in the United States: Perspectives on assessment and intervention. American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. Child maltreatment and memory. Annual review of psychology. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. Maniglio R. The impact of child sexual abuse on health: a systematic review of reviews. Clinical psychology review. Child sexual abuse and the development of psychiatric disorders: a neurobiological trajectory of pathogenesis. Industrial Psychiatry Journal.
A longitudinal study of the effects of childhood trauma on symptoms and functioning of people with severe mental health problems. Census of India New Delhi [cited ]. International Institute of Population Sciences. National Family Health Survey- 4. India: International Institute of Population Sciences, — The Oriental Anthropologist. Psychological Studies.
Child maltreatment in India. Paediatrics and International Child Health. Human Rights Watch. RAHI Foundation. New Delhi: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. PLOS Medicine. Geneva Switzerland : World Health Organisation; Alaggia R. Journal of evaluation in clinical practice. Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research COREQ : a item checklist for interviews and focus groups.
International journal for quality in health care: journal of the International Society for Quality in Health Care. Child Abuse Negl. Substance abuse among street children in Mumbai.
Child sexual abuse in India: A systematic review
Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies. BMC public health. Prevalence and spectrum of sexual abuse among adolescents in Kerala, South India. Indian journal of pediatrics. Non-traditional lifestyles and prevalence of mental disorders in adolescents in Goa, India. The British Journal of Psychiatry. Garnering an in-depth understanding of men who have sex with men in Chennai, India: a qualitative analysis of sexual minority status and psychological distress. Archives of sexual behavior. Incidence of childhood abuse among women with psychiatric disorders compared with healthy women: Data from a tertiary care centre in India.
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Southern Communication Journal. AIDS care. HIV vulnerabilities of sex-trafficked Indian women and girls. International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Karandikar S, Gezinski L, C. Meshelemiah J. A qualitative examination of women involved in prostitution in Mumbai, India: The role of family and acquaintances Karandikar S, Gezinski LB. Rescue Magar V.
Signs : Journal of Women in Culture and Society. Sinha S. Sanitation-related psychosocial stress: A grounded theory study of women across the life-course in Odisha , India. Nontobacco substance use, sexual abuse, HIV, and sexually transmitted infection among street children in Kolkata, India. On the global level , it has emerged that such violence whether physical, sexual or emotional is committed mostly by parents, relatives, spouses of child brides, or teachers. In addition, according to UNICEF data from regarding 28 countries, out of 10 adolescents who have reported forced sexual relations, 9 revealed that they were victims of a person they know or was close to the family.
The home is not the only theater of violence. Others, such as schools and the world of sports are also environments in which episodes of sexual abuse can occur. According to data from , the World Tourism Organization UNWTO , each year 3 million persons take a trip in order to have sexual relations with minors.
Not to be overlooked is the growing number of women traveling to developing countries seeking paid sex with minors. It is a significant fact that the perpetrators of such crimes, in most cases, are oblivious of the fact that they are committing a crime.
The seven strategies are: Implementation and enforcement of laws : e. Norms and values : e. Safe environments : i. Parent and caregiver support : e. Income and economic strengthening : such as microfinance fostering economic equality between men and women; Response and support services : e.
Related Sexual Abuse of Children and Youth in our World
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