Science fiction as a genre tends to demand explanation and reasoning cf. Rhetorics of Fantasy xiv. To rephrase, science fiction needs to prove the validity of its creations. Fantasy, by comparison, draws inspiration from purely imaginative concepts that do not require justification or explanation; fantasy presents its supernatural events as facts that are not meant to be plausible. Last but not least, the element of wonder is at the heart of typical fantasy narratives. Science fiction stories, by way of contrast, are driven by a desire for discovery and technological curiosity.
Fantasy fiction also needs to be differentiated from genres such as horror and ghost story. According to Manlove, the main difference is that in horror and ghost stories the supernatural remains estranged, foreign, and frightening, whereas in fantasy the readers as well as the characters gradually familiarize themselves with the uncanny, potentially even embracing it as a worthy aspect of life cf.
Modern Fantasy 9. Fantasy, by way of contrast, usually requires the evil to pose a moral dilemma cf. As with horror and ghost narratives, fantasy may feature beasts and daunting characters, but their functions go beyond causing fright; instead, they bring depth and complexity to the story. Defining Fantasy Fiction In the introduction to The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, John Clute and John Grant propose a definition of the genre that arises from the opposition between fantasy and realism.
In other words, there were no grounds for discrimination between fantasy and realistic fiction. Building on the work of J. Tolkien, John Clute, and John Grant, I view fantasy fiction as an independent literary genre with a distinct set of thematic and structural features. For the purpose of this study, the following definition will be considered: fantasy is a genre of fiction comprised of narratives in which the violation of natural laws, otherwise known as the supernatural component, is indispensable to the integrity of the narrative. While other fictions might feature supernatural elements, these devices are not presented as interrelated components of a specific alternative world order; instead, these elements are meant to achieve specific narrative goals e.
In fantasy 18 Even when treated as a genre, fantasy often implies not only fiction, but film as well. While the cinematic aspect of the genre goes beyond the scope of this dissertation, it presents extensive opportunities for future investigation. This applies in equal measure to fantasy film in general and fairytale fantasy film in particular. Fantasy fiction relies on the ontological contrast between the imaginary narrative space and our consensus reality. As a result, fantasy narratives elicit reoccurring comparison between the Primary World and the Secondary World.
Fairy tales do not encourage readers to accept the fictional reality of the imaginary universe. Ancient myths, by way of contrast do not suggest a separation between the Primary and the Secondary World. Instead, the supernatural is subjected to religious belief: at the time when myths were conceived people regarded them as part of historical reality.
These examples demonstrate how the proposed working definition separates fantasy from other forms of supernatural fiction and stresses its potency as an autonomous literary genre. The Modes of Fantasy Fiction There are numerous ways to categorize different works of fantasy fiction. For the sake of my argument, I shall focus on two. In Rhetorics of Fantasy, the British historian Farah Mendlesohn divides fantasy fiction into four modes: portal-quest fantasy, immersive fantasy, intrusive fantasy, and liminal fantasy.
The division is predetermined by the type of secondary world that is featured in each given fantasy novel. Mendlesohn points out that the classification is based on how the supernatural enters the fictional world cf. A portal-quest fantasy is a story in which the protagonist enters the secondary world through some kind of portal. The separation between the worlds is crucial to this mode: one world has to allow the supernatural, whereas the other should not.
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The secondary world gradually reveals its secrets in the course of a portal-quest fantasy for both the protagonist and the reader to explore. The second mode suggested by Mendlesohn is immersive fantasy; it can be considered in opposition with the portal-quest. Immersive fantasy is set entirely in the secondary world that is unrelated to our consensus reality. For the protagonists of an immersive fantasy their world is the only existing reality. The world is described but not explained: the readers are expected to discover the rules empirically.
Immersive fantasy domesticates the secondary world: one can recognize it by the close attention paid to details. Mendlesohn points out that immersive fantasies watch the world break apart, as opposed to portal-quest fantasies that tell the story of creation. In the third mode, the intrusive fantasy, the supernatural is portrayed as a chaotic element that suddenly appears and disturbs the world. Intrusive fantasies create an atmosphere that is based on gradually escalating tension. The fourth mode suggested by Farah Mendlesohn is liminal fantasy.
Liminal fantasies are stories that feel like fantasies, but essentially are not; such narratives manage to construct a wondrous atmosphere while avoiding supernatural plot devices. Liminal fantasy often seems like it is set in our consensus reality, and yet an underlying perception tells the reader that something is off. In other words, it is not the supernatural itself, but the anticipation of it that makes this mode fantasy.
Liminal fantasy depends on hesitation: the reader can never be sure whether or not the supernatural entered the narrative. The parallels between the categories are discussed in more detail in the fourth chapter of this work. Each mode suggests a unique set of rhetorical strategies that situate the supernatural within the imaginary universe.
Furthermore, each mode implies a different type of interaction between the secondary world and our consensus reality. Thus, in portal-quest fantasy, the secondary world has one or several entry points i. In immersive fantasy, the secondary world is the only existing world, and, therefore, the only reality known to the characters.
Intrusive fantasy is usually set in our world that is invaded by the secondary world; the secondary world can be visualized as a wave or a virus that gradually invades the mundane world. In liminal fantasy, the relation between our world and the secondary world is undefined; chaotic glimpses of the secondary world unsystematically appear throughout the narrative, but the reader does not have enough evidence to develop a clear understanding.
Farah Mendlesohn notes that the four modes are not meant as rigid structures. There are numerous works of fantasy fiction that combine the characteristics of different modes. Yet, this framework is instrumental in establishing patters among otherwise hard to distinguish fantasy narratives. He views genres as social constructs: they evolved in 31 ways to match different needs of the writers and readers.
From that one might conclude that genres evolved under the influence of demand, to match the interests of particular social classes or communities. In Metaphors of Genre , Fishelov discusses the role of four influential metaphors used in contemporary genre theory: those that compare literary genres to biological species, families, social institutions, and speech acts. Fishelov argues that the respective analogies influence our perception and understanding of texts. Amongst the four metaphors suggested by Fishelov, correlating genres with social institutions is most appropriate for this study.
As with institutions, genres should not be seen as rigid entities; they change over time, transforming in order to stay relevant. In a complimentary way, the reader demands compliance with the established generic conventions so that he can integrate the new text, but at the same time he expects the writer to manipulate these established conventions so that the new text is more than a tedious repetition of the generic tradition Since both, social institutions and literary genres are guided by conventions, Fishelov claims that genres can be defined by the same categories as institutions.
To illustrate: an institution is sustained because it fulfills a specific purpose; every institution has its unique means to attain 32 this purpose; social institutions also require particular types of behavior the transgression of which is normally considered unacceptable. In the same way, Fishelov argues, literary genres have their unique goals, means to realize these goals, and conventional norms or generic roles that can be used to differentiate genres from one another. The widely-used classification into subgenres of fantasy fiction, by way of contrast, does not have a single author.
Rather, individual categories developed over time under the influence of numerous writers, critics, and, not least, marketing strategies. Fantasy subgenres congregate on the basis of shared themes, settings, narrative tropes, and character archetypes. The trend resulted in the appearance of the first subgenres of fantasy fiction, namely epic, heroic, and sword and sorcery fantasy. Penzoldt defines the weird tale by its typical characters, such as ghosts, vampires, and werewolves. Certainly, not every work of epic fantasy is genre fantasy; nevertheless, many have been found to exhibit formulaic generic patterns.
Fantasy has been evolving, transforming, and branching into new subgenres, ultimately surpassing its original limitations. New character archetypes, alternative settings, and unexpected themes generated new subgenres that have little in common with traditional fantasy. Most fantasylands can be compared to one-dimensional decorations that lack any meaningful substance. Low fantasy, by way of contrast is a degrative term for all the other subgenres that diverge from the standard. One might argue that fantasy fiction has been gradually retreating from nostalgic categories toward a more complex exploration of points of view, motives, and grey areas.
In my opinion, the most interesting trend has been the switch from a medieval to an industrial setting: after decades of epic fantasy placing the supernatural behind portals and in alternative worlds, recent subgenres let the supernatural to cross over into mundane reality. The impossible, the uncanny, and the strange entered the shared universe of the reader.
The Hybrid Nature of the Fairytale Fantasy David Fishelov proposes that particular genres have particular goals; these goals are met differently depending on the genre. The process of meeting goals throughout the narrative is influenced by implicit conventions associated with individual genres. Each subgenre of fantasy fiction has its individual goals, means, and roles. This dissertation focuses on the fairytale fantasy.
Zahorski and Robert H. Boyer in the collection Fantasists on Fantasy , is not always used in a negative context. Fairytale fantasy combines a fantasy fiction narrative framework with plot elements from classic fairy tales and folktale. First, the twice-told tale. An exemplary twice-told tale is David H. Many fairytale fantasies are retellings of already existing fairy stories and, thus, fall into the twice-told tale category. Clute and Grant also introduce the term revisionist fantasy.
Revisionist fantasies are essentially twice-told tales but with a stronger critical agenda; such narratives borrow scenarios from older supernatural works with the intent to reinterpret and reevaluate i. Revisionist fantasy belongs to the larger framework 36 of fictional revisionism that encompasses not only supernatural fiction but literatures of all genres.
As will be demonstrated in the subsequent chapters, the ability to clearly separate works of fairytale fantasy from other supernatural narratives is instrumental in understanding the phenomenon and its role in the popularity of revisionist literature. Works can be and often are twice-told tales and revisionist fantasy simultaneously.
Neither twice-told tales nor revisionist fantasy have to be related to fairy tales. Such works can be reinterpretations of ancient myths, post-WWII comics, national legends, and even recent work of supernatural fiction. Revisionism is not in any way limited to the fairytale fantasy genre. But it does, or so I have argued, take on a unique form in fairytale fantasy works. Instead, I focus on a distinctive form of revisionism that appears in fairytale fantasy texts, enabled by their structural hybridity. A literary work must demonstrate substantial use of folklore-inspired elements to qualify as fairytale fantasy.
There are, however, studies that observe revisionist tendencies in folk- and fairy tales. Building on earlier research, this dissertation seeks to explore national fairy tale traditions with the aim to establish an innovative interpretive framework for fairytale fantasy works. Among other things, I argue that fairytale fantasy narratives take advantage of the impact classic fairy tales have on many readers from an early age.
It should be noted, however, that this form of fairytale fantasy is not the focus of this dissertation. Fantasy fiction is related to the fairy tale in many ways since the genres share similar historical origins. The fairytale fantasy is the most recent intersection between fairy tale and fantasy. However, it should not be considered merely a deformation of either of the larger categories. This dissertation aims to demonstrate a variety of features that set the fairytale fantasy apart from its generic predecessors.
Fairytale fantasies uses the dynamic narrative features of the fantasy genre to reimagine classic fairy tale scenarios in ways that resonate with contemporary readers more even than the original tales. Utilizing recognizable settings and plot lines, the fairytale fantasy provides formidable ground for revision: it picks up narrative threads that are left undeveloped in traditional tales, gives voice to previously silenced characters, and engages with background characters who typically remain behind the scenes.
The fairytale fantasy is a literary phenomenon that blends thematic, structural, and narrative elements from fairy tale and fantasy fiction, exploring familiar tropes in unexpected and often provocative ways. Fairytale fantasy has been gaining international acclaim during the last decade. As a genre, it includes not only fiction but film as well. In fact, some of the most popular fairytale fantasies are film adaptations e. Yet, due to limited space this 32 The topic is discussed in more detail in the next chapter. Folktales and fairy tale are known to have provided a foundation for the canon in many literarily traditions, including the German and Russian.
The fact that most tales are embedded in the national tradition in which they originated influences our perception: we are inclined to interpret the narratives within their cultural and linguistic contexts. According to Funke, we can only fully understand tales through the lens of their respective cultures. To illustrate, an Anglophone fairytale fantasy that draws inspiration from a German fairy tale should be considered simultaneously within the Anglophone fantasy tradition and the Germanic fairy tale tradition.
Only then, I argue, can the works be thoroughly investigated. Germanic and Russian literatures have some of the strongest folk- and fairy tale traditions in the world. In addition, a juxtaposition of works which draw from different mythological and linguistic backgrounds is intended to demonstrate that the means of understanding the fairytale fantasy introduced in this study are not limited to specific national literatures, but might be extended to various traditions.
Framing the Fairytale Fantasy within the Fairy Tale Context A comprehensive interpretation of individual fairytale fantasy works requires an understanding of the components that constitute the genre. Now that fantasy fiction has been reviewed, the following section proceeds by considering some relevant aspects of the fairy tale genre.
The fact that folktales were not recorded systematically until the seventeenth century does not mean they did not exist long before that. The oral transmission is what distinguishes the folktale from the literary fairy tale. At the time when literary fairy tales began to appear, they were likely to be written recordings of traditional folktales. The influence of oral folklore on the development of literary fairy tales is remarkably strong: Oral folklore […] was shaped in the early Christian era through the repeated transmission of tales that were written down and retold and mutually influenced one another.
There is no evidence that a […] literary fairy tale tradition existed in Europe before the Medieval period. Accessed 6 Nov. Although a literary fairy tale is likely to bear a strong resemblance to its oral prototype, it is ultimately the product of a singular or a group of authors, who collected the oral story and reproduced it in writing.
Over time literary fairy tales grew apart from their oral predecessors, gradually forming an autonomous genre. Initially, fairy tales were written by adults and for adults; the genre became associated with children only much later. The fairy tale went through a number of transformations. At first, fairy tales were performed as anecdotes by the aristocrats as a way of displaying skills in languages and manners; later, fairy tales took the shape of extensive semi-novels; at last, they became short stories, as we know them today.
Some of the influential figures associated with the rise of the European fairy tale tradition are Giovanni Straparola — , Giambattista Basile — , Charles Perrault — , and Jacob — and Wilhelm — Grimm. For that reason, I shall avoid an extended discussion unless it is deemed necessary by the argument of this dissertation.
Wondertales are typically set in a family home where the father or any other figure of authority poses a problem that ultimately determines the trajectory of the narrative. The problem can be specific or general. The cure is the same: to find a replacement for what is lacking or to restore what has been taken.
All this requires a hero. Jack Zipes , on the other hand, apply the term exclusively to oral tales. Due to its supernatural orientation, the wondertale has been noted to have the most in common with fantasy fiction. It is even more challenging to find research not only across genres but also across different national literatures.
Apart from this, there is a wide variety of folk- and fairy tale scholarship in North America and Europe. Below, I limit my account to a brief survey of the most popular approaches relevant to this study. In the same way North American research is presented in this chapter, Germanic and Russian scholarship shall be discussed in Chapters 2 and 4 respectively.
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These frameworks have proven to be instrumental to the formal study of folktales and fairy tales. My dissertation combines the structuralist approach with the historicist theoretical frameworks in order to expose the generic succession between classic fairy tales and fairytale fantasy works. I intend to show that the fairytale fantasy is not an isolated phenomenon; 43 Here, I refer to Russian formalism, the school of literary criticism that examines narrative structures through the lens of their functional roles in texts.
The structuralist approach to fairy tales gained popularity in the s, primarily due to the efforts of Vladimir Propp and other Russian formalists. He developed a typology that aimed to define and interpret Russian folktales in terms of their shared structures. Among other things, the method shows that different characters can perform the same or similar functions in the story.
Vladimir Propp argues that a number of fixed functions i. These functions include but are not limited to trickery, mediation, departure, guidance, and punishment. Characters, as opposed to functions, are interchangeable; their main purpose is to perform actions towards the protagonist that will advance the plot.
The research led Propp to the conclusion that wondertales tend to be relatively predictable. Russian formalists significantly advanced the formal understanding of folk- and fairy tales. It has been first translated into English in and published under the title Morphology of the Folktale. While doing so in distinct ways, both scholars argue for the importance of folk- and fairy tales as socio-historical testimonies. This work employs the critical theories that have been summarized above in order to illuminate various aspects of the fairytale fantasy and fairy tale dynamic.
Among other things, I propose that our perception of fairytale fantasy narratives is influenced by previous experiences of reading classic fairy tales. At the heart of my argument is the hypothesis that by revising fairy tale tropes, fairytale fantasy challenges readers to reinterpret and reevaluate traditional tales. As I will show in the following chapters, this dynamic generates a number of consequences, including, among other things, innovative applications of fairy tale and fairytale fantasy works in educational settings.
Most critics acknowledge the vital 47 role fairy tales play in European and North American history. Along with myths, fairy tales demonstrate how influential supernatural narratives can be. Jack Zipes remarks: As metaphorical tales were told and circulated thousands of years before print, they served social functions, were retained through memory, and were passed on from generation to generation. When oral wonder tales originated, it is difficult to say, but there are traces, signs, patterns, and plots in early ancient manuscripts that reveal how all people came to know the world through metaphor, ritual, custom, and transformation.
As Zipes points out, for thousands of years, stories have been told about miraculous transformations, rebirth, and the triumph of good forces. Moreover, these scenarios continue to captivate readers even today. Scholars have suggested different explanations for the popularity of fairy tales; many e. Robinson, ; Tatar, believe that it is the unique language associated with the fairy tale tradition that is the key to its power. The language of fairy tales has a long history of scholarly exploration.
Our attachment to fairy tales develops throughout childhood and adolescence. Maria Tatar emphasizes the role of fairy-tale language in teaching children to have a more meaningful perception of the world. One could argue that the rich vocabulary of the fairy tale offers both children and adults an entrance into an alternative realm. For children, it is the realm of a grown-up life that is yet unknown to them, whereas, for adults, fairy tales address the bittersweet realm of their juvenile memories. Fairy tales can be a formidable tool for children to discover the power of language.
Observing how it transforms the imaginary space of the fairy story, children internalize the idea 49 that language evokes transformation. At the same time children are confronted with the power of metaphors: a spell does not work in our consensus reality in the same way it does in a story, but it nevertheless has a meaning.
In fairy tales, it is often the case that protagonists have to name particular words, or refrain from saying them in order to gain advantages. Consequently, words acquire double or even triple meanings. The right phrases reach the level of spells, yielding singular power. Verbal mistakes, on the other hand, can have severe consequences. Put differently, not only the supernatural but more so the language has the power to induce change.
Various narrative techniques enable to create a wondrous, for the lack of a better term, atmosphere in the story. Literary devices, including metaphor, irony, anthropomorphism, flashback, foreshadowing, allegory, oxymoron, satire, and personification encourage readers of supernatural narratives to shift from the regular into a more magical kind of thinking. A certain fascination with language is typical for German, Russian, and other fairy tale traditions from around the world.
It is my belief that fantasy fiction shares this quality. A big part 50 of what attracts readers to fantasy narratives is, arguably, the ability to use figurative language to depict foreign worlds as strangely familiar yet distant and wondrous. This statement corresponds with J. The fairy tale is recognized by its language. Fairytale fantasy takes advantage of this feature by incorporating distinctive narrative devices in the same way it borrows typical fairy-tale settings and character archetypes.
In this way, the fairytale fantasy taps into the stream of images readers associate with traditional fairy tales. Conclusion: Chapter 1 This chapter introduced a variety of working definitions that are meant to help navigating this study. It offered a survey of the history of and research on European and North American fantasy fiction.
Considering the historically dominant position of Anglophone fantasy tradition, it does not come as a surprise that fantasy fiction in other national literatures was unable to develop completely unrestricted. Instead, many international works, including German and Russian fantasy novels carry a heavy imprint of British and North American classics. The following chapters shall demonstrate that fairytale fantasy, more than any other subgenre of fantasy fiction, has a unique 51 foundation in the German and Russian literatures, which arises from the formidable fairy tale tradition embedded in both national traditions.
Classic fairy tales focus on protagonists finding their happiness, which typically means accumulating wealth, moving up in social ranks, marrying successfully, establishing an income, and acquiring property. Such tales depict the supernatural as a tool that either aids or prevents protagonists from achieving their goals. While drawing from classic fairy tales, fairytale fantasy narratives seek to reevaluate old paradigms by questioning and challenging established values.
The remaining chapters introduce a range of narrative characteristics that enable the fairytale fantasy to exceed the limitations of its generic predecessors. The study contrasts selected German and Russian fairy tale and fairytale fantasy case-studies. Along with thematic and structural features, the analysis focuses on reoccurring language devices, shared character archetypes, the portrayal of transformation, and the role of magical objects in the narratives.
Following the assumption that understanding the evolution of the genre is instrumental in interpreting individual works, each case-study is examined in the context of the corresponding national literary tradition. The previous chapter also defined supernatural fiction, and provided a brief historical account of the fantasy and fairy tale genres. The aim was to contextualize the fairytale fantasy phenomenon within the larger framework of European and, partially, North American supernatural literature.
The fairytale fantasy, which is the primary focus of this work, has been characterized as a subgenre of fantasy fiction that is defined by its explicit use of folk- and fairy tale tropes. The dissertation proceeds by analyzing the first set of case studies. Funke places her original characters in a secondary world that resembles that of the tales. This chapter highlights the ways in which the novel encourages readers to critically engage with outdated scenarios. I shall demonstrate that Reckless is a remarkable example of the revisionist potential inherent in works of the fairytale fantasy genre.
Fairytale Fantasy in German Literary Tradition Germanic literary scholarship on supernatural fiction might be not as widely known internationally as the Anglophone, but nonetheless it has a vibrant and potent history. In respect to terminology, Germanic scholars tend to use the terms phantastische Literatur, Phantastik, and less often Fantasy to describe supernatural fiction. It does not equal horror fiction, ghost story, or fantasy fiction. Other key elements of the genre are fear, loss, destruction, and disorientation. Clearly, this does not apply to either supernatural fiction or fantasy: it is too narrow for the former and inaccurate for the latter.
Phantastik is an extensive or a narrow category. Winfried Freund views the Phantastik as an independent genre of fiction, and so does this study. For an elaborate discussion of the topic see Freund, Winfried, Deutsche Phantastik, —6. Deutsche Phantastik offers an account of Germanic non-mimetic fiction with barely any references to fantasy fiction.
As mentioned in the first chapter of this dissertation, the purpose of the historical survey is to trace the development of supernatural literature in the Germanic tradition. The overarching goal of the analysis is to contextualize the fairytale fantasy within its genealogy first, in order to later show how the new genre emancipates from old structures. These stories were set in the Middle Ages and told about knights, robbers, and ghosts. The great Romanticist E. Hoffmann — has, arguably, influenced the development of German as well as international fantasy the most. Following the decline of Romanticism, Germanic supernatural fiction started to gain momentum once more with the rise of weird fiction in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Although many authors experimented with supernatural motifs e. Anna Seghers, —; Irmtraud Morgner, — , original works of fantasy fiction, as we know the genre today, did not make a notable appearance in the German literary tradition until after the Second World War. After a period of stagnation inflicted by the Nazi regime,57 translated works of modern fantasy fiction flooded the German market. Predominantly Anglophone authors such as J. Tolkien, C. Michael Ende — authored some of the first original works of modern fantasy fiction in German. Ende remains one of the best internationally recognized Germanic fantasy writers.
Despite the growing number of domestic works, to this day translated Anglophone novels constitute a major share of the fantasy market in German-speaking countries. To me this is a paradox, considering the leading role supernatural narratives played throughout most of the Germanic literary history.
Considering that an attempt to explain this strange phenomenon could easily produce enough material for another dissertation, I shall leave the question open for future investigation. I will claim, however, that the fairytale fantasy genre might become a source of opportunities for Germanic fantasy to retrieve some of the popularity known to other types of supernatural fiction within the tradition. Many of these books are part of extensive series. Some of the most frequently retold fairy tales in the world belong to Wilhelm — and Jacob — Grimm, arguably the most prominent storytellers and collectors in the Germanic literary tradition.
It is my belief that extending the canon of fantasy fiction to include more fairytale fantasy works is a crucial step toward recognizing the influence of non-Anglophone traditions on the historical development of the fantasy genre that will benefits the larger community of fantasy scholars.
In the course of the nineteenth century folklore became the subject of interest for many, perceived as a pure form of national literature naturally created by the people or Volk as opposed to individual authors. The Grimms were preceded by Johann K. In addition, various authors were collecting Germanic folklore simultaneously with the Grimms. The spurious belief that the Grimms amassed their tales directly from the German people contributed to their nationalistic reputation, even though their tales were in fact derived from an assorted national background.
For the Grimms, it was of crucial importance that their tales were specifically German, and, furthermore, belonged to the cultural heritage of the German people. Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm were highly invested in understanding the German culture through and beyond its folklore. They worked with German language, its customs, and its laws, gradually developing a substantial scholarly reputation. He wrote thirty or forty books. Collecting German folklore was a way for the Brothers to preserve the cultural identity of their nation at a time when the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte — was conquering major parts of Germany and other European countries.
The Brothers developed a unique style that reminded of traditions, rituals, and the countryside.
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Although derived from an oral tradition, they were too strongly modified by its creators to be considered folktales in their authentic form. The Grimms, especially Wilhelm, kept heavily revising and altering the collected tales between and ; seven editions appeared overall. Grimms reinforced the idea that their collected tales arose directly from the people, and, therefore, were representative of German mentality. It is somewhat of an irony that the Grimms deliberately edited their tales to make them appear more authentic. In addition to the national character of their collection, the Grimms insisted on the character-building qualities of their tales.
The first KHM edition first volume published in and second in was the only one not intended for children. The Grimms believed that children should be familiarized with national lore from an early age, as a way of teaching younger generations appropriate middle-class values and beliefs.
The third edition appeared in , the fourth in , the fifth in , and the sixth in There is a total of tales in the seventh and final edition of KHM from Over the years, some tales were added and others were omitted. The Grimms also contributed to the worldwide popularity of fairy tales today. There exists plenty of scholarship on the Brothers themselves as well as on their oeuvre. Ever since the fairy tale became predominantly children-oriented, its popularity only increased.source site
In the course of the twentieth century, the fairy tale established its influence through newly developed media, such as television and video games. Walt Disney started an entertainment revolution by bringing fairy stories on screen and, subsequently, enchanting audiences of all ages. Since his first fairy-tale based film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs , there does not seem to be one year that has elapsed without fairy tale adaptations.
Since neither Disney nor Bettelheim worked with literary fairytale fantasies directly, the account is kept brief. After the launch of the films, the fairy tale became further entrenched with concern to its contemporary image as educational material for children. There is little scientific explanation as to why we care about fairy tales so passionately. Jack Zipes comments on the controversial appeal of fairy tales: What is interesting about […] canonical fairy tales in the Western world is that we have no idea why we care about them, know them so well, are attracted to them, and are apt to pass them on to other people without a second thought.
Fairy tales accompany us, entertain us, instruct us, and soothe us throughout our lives, and this gives them an invaluable quality.
Bruno Bettelheim, by way of contrast, concentrates on more problematic psychological concerns associated with fairy tales. Contrary to Disney, Bettelheim shows that the engagement with the supernatural not always leads to positive desired outcomes; instead, it can reveal a lot about our fears and anxieties. As formulated by Zipes: Fairy tales […] incorporate a moral code that reflects upon the basic instincts of the human being as a mortal animal and suggest ways to channel these instincts for personal and communal happiness.
In fact, her work seems to follow a trend that has been gaining momentum in recent decades. The flags indicate which authority file had at least some publications from the country or region :. Publication Statistics Publication History Send us a comment. About VIAF. Andersen as seen by critics of German children's literature since the beginning of the twentieth century. Jugendkultur im Adoleszenzroman : Jugendliteratur der 80er und 90er Jahre zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Kinderliteratur im interkulturellen Prozess : Studien zur allgemeinen und vergleichenden Kinderliteraturwissenschaft.
Kindheit als poetische Daseinsform : Studien zur Entstehung der romantischen Kindheitsutopie im Zum einen soll herausgearbeitet werden, inwieweit die inhaltliche Thematik der Zeit mit Hilfe von Stilmitteln untermauert wird.
Der Sandmann by E.T.A. Hoffmann
More information about this seller Contact this seller 6. More information about this seller Contact this seller 7. Die Auseinandersetzung mit der Zeit ist keine neue Kontroverse. More information about this seller Contact this seller 8. More information about this seller Contact this seller 9. Published by John Lane, London England No Jacket. Foxing to edge and front of cloth. The author's reminiscences of his experiences in Africa, Nigeria. Map of Nigeria. More information about this seller Contact this seller Spine a little bumped; fore-edge foxed; a little scattered light foxing to text.
Used - Very Good. VG hardback no dustjacket. Published by Quirk Books Galway, Ireland. About this Item: Quirk Books, Part find Wally, part lovely photography book this delightful gift book challenges readers to locate Momo the Border Collie in a variety of outdoor scenes. Num Pages: pages, full colour photos throughout. Dimension: x x Weight in Grams: Seller Inventory V Momo the adorable Border collie is back! This time you can play hide-and-seek with Momo as he travels from coast to coast, visiting iconic North American landmarks and exploring back roads Americana and Canada.
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Blue boards, bumped, clean, pages, previous owner's name and date to fep, otherwise clean. Clipped jacket has slight edge wear with small chips to head and toe of the spine, surfaces clean, now protected in a removable clear plastic sleeve. Price includes standard postage worldwide. Published by Alfaguara. About this Item: Alfaguara.
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