The data from KECO was used as this is the first year in which the Korea government expanded its free waste collection policy collecting waste products from homes without cost nation- wide [ 1 ]. Table 1 shows the lists of sources or companies used for the MFA of waste refrigerators and computers.
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Additional data and information were collected through interviews with WEEE recycling associations and recycling industry experts, consultations with the Ministry of Environment and KECO, and field surveys conducted at WEEE recycling centers and companies. From the results of MFA, we reviewed the applicable technologies available for improving the recovery and recycle of materials from waste refrigerators and computers.
Results and Discussion 3.
upcycling how to recycle your household trash old items and more Manual
To refine the concept of upcycling, we conducted domestic and foreign case studies on upcycling. MFA of Waste Refrigerators and Computers Waste refrigerators and waste computers are collected using different methods by the formal and informal sectors.
On the other hand, the informal sector includes junk shops, private collectors, or reuse shops. According to Recycling Center RC interview and internal materials , discarded refrigerators can be converted into scrap, plastic, urethane, etc.
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In the formal sector as shown in Fig. We estimated the amount of resources recovered from waste refrigerators by the informal sector based on interviews with junk shops. The areal range of collection of one junk shop was obtained based on the interviews, then the population ratio of the collection area was calculated by comparing the population in Seoul and the national population. The daily scale of operations of one junk shop, the average weight of a refrigerator, number of working days of the junk shop 5 d a week or d a year were taken into consideration in the calculation A Junk shop interview and internal materials, However, we were unable to obtain the amount of waste refrigerators that were reused.
After resource recovery, valuable resources such as copper, scrap, metal, and plastics are sold or exported to recycling companies, and low-value residues such as oils, waste refrigerant, and urethane are disposed to landfills or incinerated. Table 2 shows the final recycling amount and ratio of waste refrigerators for the formal sector. Overall, The MFA uncovered that among the collected resources, urethane was inactively recycled, and a part of the waste refrigerant was released into the atmosphere. With more active recycling of urethane, it will be possible to recycle most of the resources from waste refrigerators collected by both the formal and informal sectors.
The amount of waste computers collected by the informal sector was estimated based on J Junk shop interview and internal materials , which came to be about The stages of processing waste computers for resource recovery are the same as those of waste refrigerators. Through pre-treatment such as separation, shredding, and extraction, waste computers are converted metal, nonferrous, plastics, glass, etc.
In the formal sector, as shown in Fig. After the resource recovery stage, valuable resources such as metal, nonferrous, plastics and recyclable parts are sold or exported to recycling companies, and low-value residues are disposed to landfills or incinerated. Table 3 shows the final recycling amount and ratio of waste computers for the formal sector.
The recycling ratio of waste computers in was The MFA of waste computers revealed that among the collected resources, glass and some metals contained in monitors were either landfilled or incinerated, pointing to the need for new technologies for recycling liquid crystal glass and other metal resources.
Possible Implementation of Upcycling Technologies Based on MFA: A Review Based on the results of the MFA, we examined the upcycling technologies available for recovering and recirculating resources from waste refrigerators and computers. In doing so, we linked foreign recycling technologies [ 10 — 14 ] with the four upcycling strategies proposed herein.
We limited the scope of our examination to the formal sector. In case of refrigerators, it is possible to introduce 28 upcycling technologies. Among these, 13 technologies are applicable for converting existing low-grade recycling products into high-grade or advanced recycling, 9 technologies are geared toward improving the productivity or efficiency of recycling, 5 technologies are for recycling products or items that are simply being discarded landfill or incineration without energy recovery. The one remaining technology is for converting energy recovery recycling to material recovery recycling.
In the case of computers, 15 technologies are available, among which 8 technologies are applicable for upgrading low-grade recycling products into high-grade or advanced recycling, 4 technologies can improve the productivity or efficiency of recycling, and 3 technologies are for recycling simply discarded products or items. Table 4 comprehensively presents the available upcycling technologies for refrigerators and computers [ 10 — 14 ]. This gives a smoother looking finish and makes the actual painting process a bit easier.
Make Recycling Fun for Your Family
Glass jars are another common item for repurposing and upcycling, as they can be reused for storage, organization, decoration- just about anything you can imagine. A few ideas here:. You can save glass jars to use for gifts, too. Think of the money that gets spent on wrapping paper which ultimately gets thrown away anyway. So, glass jar gifts are a great idea because they reduce waste and you might just happen to have some lying around the house anyway.
It's a modern concept.
What’s all the fuss about upcycling?
On the other hand, Nathan believes keeping everything is unrealistic and he suggests setting a goal to "try a small upcycling project and grow your confidence from there. Tiffany recommends getting your friends and family involved so you're not doing it alone. Even if you're new to the idea of upcycling, it's easy to get started. Nathan tells us that he hits eBay when he's looking for materials to use for his next project: "I scour eBay for items that nobody wants, and items ending soonest that have no bids.
I can then create something that is special and productive that would have otherwise ended up in landfill. Upcycling works inside and out. Check out seven ideas for repurposing household items in your garden. Reducing the amount of waste ending up in landfill Creating exciting projects with a fun 'problem solving' element Living a more sustainable life Eliminating the idea of waste Making something special out of someone else's 'trash'.
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