Masse und Volumen der Speichermedien Tank oder Batterie sind enthalten This results in limited range for a batteryelectric vehicle. Using hydrogen as an energy carrier in the vehicle requires conversion to electricity onboard the vehicle. However, given the high efficiency of a fuel cell, it is a very promising possibility to enable electric vehicles to achieve greater vehicle range. The time needed to recharge the battery is also a limitation for plug-in electric vehicles. The charging rate is determined by two factors: 1 the available electrical power, and 2 the impact on the durability of the battery cells.
Recharging a battery from a household electrical outlet requires some considerable time. It is dependent on the available power level, the voltage, and the size of the battery. Generally, overnight recharging is preferable, although quick-charging is possible, but it limits the life of the battery. Lithium-ion batteries have become the standard for electric vehicles that store energy from the grid because of their superior energy density. However, lithium-ion battery cells require operation in a defined temperature range, Fig.
Meanwhile, high temperatures increase the chemical degradation of the battery and therefore reduce battery life. The ambient temperature determines the performance of the battery at the start of vehicle operation, unless the battery pack is pre-conditioned. In order to keep the battery temperature in the optimal range, thermal management systems are used. This kWh lithium-ion battery contains prismatic cells and uses liquid-based thermal management to ensure long-term durability. The energy requirement for the comfort of the passenger and for other vehicle systems such as lighting and windshield wipers can be significant.
This energy consumption is time-dependent and influences the range, especially in low-speed, inner-city driving. The cost of lithium-ion battery cells is expected to come down significantly; however, this will be an evolutionary process and will also be limited by the price of the raw materials used in the components.
The power demand that the propulsion system has to fulfill is shown on the vertical axis. Hybrid vehicles can improve vehicle efficiency the more it is used in transient operation. Diesel combustion systems deliver a significant higher efficiency than gasoline systems when operated under high load, as the combustion is lean and needs no enrichment.
Battery-electric vehicles are well-suited for the inner-city driving; however, their range is limited. An E-REV allows the vehicle to operate for a significant range using the battery charge. The range-extender enables the use of the vehicle for longer driving distances, and also improves vehicle robustness to total range in cold weather conditions, where battery range can be cut in half to provide adequate passenger comfort.
A fuel cell-electric vehicle is also well suited for longer-distance operation because of the high energy density of pressurized hydrogen. We also think that there will be a variety of solutions in the market place to meet the requirements of different customers. Personal transportation needs differ; and this will point customers to various solution sets, as indicated in the application map, Fig. We will offer solutions that span from micro-hybrid to electric vehicles with extended range. In the future, we plan to supplement these options with battery-electric and with fuel cellelectric vehicles.
The first vehicles with manual transmissions and starter-based stop-start technology were introduced in Europe during By end of , all major Opel models will offer stopstart. The engine stops when the vehicle comes to a halt and restarts seamlessly when the driver depresses the clutch pedal in preparation for shifting into gear. We are also working on the introduction of stop-start technology with automatic transmissions. Implementation with an automatic transmission requires additional technology content.
In order to keep the transmission oil pressurized during the stops, an electrical auxiliary pump, Fig. To ensure fast and smooth starts, the starter motor needs to be sized appropriately and significant attention needs to be given to the integration of the technology into the vehicle. The first cylinder that completes compression can be fired. In the restart with zero throttle input, shown below, firing the first compressing cylinder reduces the start time by almost a tenth of a second.https://pairentiagodwai.tk/479-numero-telefonico.php
In this situation, engagement of the pinion of the starter motor before the engine comes to a complete stop avoids the delay in restart time that would result if the engine needed to come to a complete stop first. The relative fuel economy benefit for an automatic transmission is higher than for a manual transmission, as the losses of the transmission and torque converter are avoided. A fuel economy improvement around four per cent is achievable in the test cycle. While this technology is clearly the entry level of electrification, it is very important because of its wide applicability.
This configuration enables the following: engine stop-start, regenerative braking, intelligent charge control of the hybrid battery, electric power assist, and electrically motored creep. Mild hybrids do not have an exclusive high-speed, electric-only mode of propulsion. In its secondgeneration system, called eAssist, GM uses a water-cooled motor-generator. The first application is the Buick LaCrosse, which will be introduced in the U. Modified Accessory Drive Tensioning System 2. Mild hybrid system with water-cooled motor-generator Bild 13 eAssist.
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This parallel hybrid system can supplement the combustion engine with up to 11 kW of electric power assist and recuperate up to 15 kW during braking. While in fuel shut-off mode, the motor-generator unit continues spinning along with the engine to provide immediate and smooth take-off power when the driver presses on the accelerator. Then, as the vehicle comes to a stop, the motor-generator unit spins the engine until it is properly positioned for a smooth restart. The eAssist system in the full-size Buick LaCrosse uses a V lithium-ion battery and, when coupled with vehicle improvements such as tires, aero shutters, and underbody aero treatments, improves fuel economy by 25 percent over the conventional four-cylinder powertrain.
The system can be combined with several engine technologies in a synergistic way. Active fuel management systems AFM can be operated in cylinder deactivation mode in a wider range of the engine map. The same applies to variable systems for air management such as 2-step variable valve lift systems. Downsized turbocharged systems can use this hybrid technology to supplement dynamic torque during accelerations . This allows for further downsizing of the engine while vehicle performance is kept constant.
It is a strong hybrid system optimizing fuel consumption in both city and highway driving modes. It uses three planetary gears, four clutches, and two 65 kW permanent-magnet electric motors . The electric motors are actively cooled with transmission fluid. A battery system stores electrical energy and power electronics are used to deliver electricity to the motors in the transmission. The system enables two electromechanical power-split hybrid modes and, in addition, four mechanical fixed gear ratios.
When it is operating as an electric variable transmission, the choice of two power-split modes reduces the amount of mechanical power that must be converted to electricity and transferred to the second electric motor. The hybrid control system shifts between the two continuously variable modes and four fixed gears by applying combinations of the four clutches.
It also manages engine torque and the torque from the electric motors to achieve the best fuel economy for any drivercommanded maneuver. The 2-Mode system launches the vehicle and drives at low speeds on electricity alone. In the case of the Chevrolet Tahoe sport utility vehicle, the vehicle is propelled electrically up to 48 kilometers per hour 30 mph , using energy delivered from the module, V, Nickel-Metal Hydride battery to the motors. When the load requirement exceeds a certain value, the combustion engine starts and delivers torque to the hybrid transmission.
Since the transmission has two motors within its base structure, it allows variable transmission ratios. The electric motors assist the combustion engine during transients; thereby maintaining the most efficient operation of the combustion engine. The latter is especially important for engine concepts that incorporate switchable systems such as cylinder deactivation. For example. When the vehicle is operated in continuous high-power condition, such as towing a trailer, the 2-Mode system can engage one of the four fixed gears to provide a direct mechanical path that reduces overall system losses.
Utilizing these technologies, the 2-Mode Hybrid Chevrolet Tahoe realize up to a 40 percent improvement in city fuel economy compared to non-hybrid models. To supplement petroleum as the sole energy source, the vehicle can be equipped with larger batteries that are recharged from the electrical grid. Depending on the installed sustainable power of the electric motor, the power capacity of the battery, and the electronics, such a vehicle offers a moderate amount of electric-only propulsion by additional battery capacity.
A plug-in hybrid starts with electrical operation. However, if the load requirement exceeds the capability of the electric motor, the internal combustion engine kicks in and provides blended operation with battery-supplied electric energy to propel the vehicle. GM currently is developing its first 2-Mode front-wheel-drive plug-in system, which is scheduled to debut next year.
These vehicles operate as electric vehicles as long as the battery is above the minimum charge level.
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When the battery reaches a minimum state-of-charge, the vehicle can still operate as the internal combustion engine starts and provides the system with electricity. This allows for increased driving range in electric drive mode and lower fuel consumption in the charge-sustaining mode. The performance requirements determine the layout of the system. The targeted vehicle acceleration during launch and during vehicle operation defines the peak tractive effort requirements. Maintaining a top speed and sustaining gradeability defines an envelope for continuous tractive effort. The continuous operation determines the cooling requirements for the components, in particular the electric motors.
As electric motors have varying efficiencies throughout the operation map, the choice of the reduction gear to the wheel is usually a balance between the tractive effort required for vehicle launch and operating efficiency. Multiple transmission ratios help to optimize operation.
In the charge-sustaining operation, when the internal combustion engine provides the energy for vehicle operation, the choice of the powerflow has an even greater influence on the efficiency, or fuel consumption, of the vehicle. GM designed a proprietary powerflow for the Voltec system. The electric traction motor with kW maximum power and Nm of maximum torque are arranged on one common axis with the 55 kW generator.
Both electric machines are permanent-magnet type. A geared final drive connects the planetary gear set to the front wheels of the vehicle. The clutches allow for two modes of electric vehicle operation when charge-depleting and two additional engine-on modes of operation when charge sustaining. The lever diagram represents the relationship between torque levels and rotation-speeds with force and displacement of the lever elements in the free-body diagram.
Depending on the clutch setting, either one electric machine or both are used to drive the vehicle. The engine can be coupled with the generator as well. The motor is supplied with electrical energy from the battery in the vehicle and operates on the sun gear of the planetary gear set. The latter functions as a reduction gear as the ring gear is held by a brake C1.
The second motor is decoupled from the internal combustion engine, which is not running. The two electric motors operate on the planetary gear, Fig. The torque and the speed of the two electric motors is determined by the linear relationship defined by the planetary gearset. The two-motor EV mode reduces the speed of the electric motors, improving efficiency and thereby the mileage in the U. Highway cycle by 1 - 2 miles of additional EV range. When the battery reaches a minimum state-of-charge, the internal combustion engine turns on and operates in series mode.
In this series-drive arrangement, there is no mechanical connection from the engine to the wheel and only the electric traction motor drives the vehicle. NVH and engine operating speed control were greatly refined as part of vehicle development and specific speed profiles to maintain natural haptics are utilized.
Since the engine is fully decoupled, it runs largely unthrottled to achieve good efficiency. The combustion engine delivers the average cycle power, but the dynamics of the vehicle remain largely electric. This is enabled by an energy reserve in the traction battery, which is employed to maintain the EV feel, even in extended-range operation. While the series arrangement is efficient for lower-speed operation, it clearly has efficiency disadvantages at higher vehicle speeds due to 1 the efficiency loss of the electric motor operated at high speed and 2 the dual energy conversion of the series path from mechanical energy to electrical energy and back to mechanical energy at the axle.
A significant improvement in efficiency can be achieved using an output-split powerflow, as shown in Fig. The generator in combination with the combustion engine and the electric traction drive motor act on the planetary gear and counteract the torque that is transmitted to the final drive. Under this operation, mechanical power from the engine is partially converted by the generator to supply electric power to the traction motor.
This configuration still enables full speed and load selection for the engine efficiency, and the motors operate to control the electric power conversion and application of power to the planetary. Both electric motors must operate and only when the traction motor reacts torque on the planetary is torque transmitted to the wheels.
The system reconfigures the powerflows during driving to optimize efficiency as well as power and NVH requirements, and this is fully transparent to the driver. Clearly, the two most important considerations for battery-electric vehicles are total range and recharge time. Range and recharge time within rational battery size and cost parameters continue to have the most significance for customers. These projects intend to provide real-world feedback on EV range, charging experience, and charging time. Based on this feedback, GM will continue to develop technology for battery-electric vehicles.
In the study, the vehicles act as mobile energy storage units in an intelligent electric grid. This demonstration vehicle uses a three-phase asynchronous motor with integrated power electronics and integrated planetary gear for a fixed gear ratio. The motor operates at to volts and provides up to 80 kW of power and Nm of torque. General Motors has also displayed a vision for personal mobility in future megacities when it unveiled the EN-V electric, networked vehicle concept, Fig.
During the World Expo in Shanghai. Its lithium-ion battery store 3. The vehicle has a very small footprint, and therefore requires only a small parking space 1. The vehicle uses several sensor systems to allow remote parking and retrieval as well as vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure connections for traffic management and crash avoidance. An FCEV allows for zero-emission vehicle operation and the displacement of petroleum as an energy carrier. These vehicles are electric vehicles that use an on-board fuel cell to generate electricity from hydrogen. The state-of-the-art hydrogen storage system uses compressed hydrogen at a pressure level of bar.
The energy density is about ten times higher than that of current battery systems, Fig. General Motors has already demonstrated an operation range of miles in real-world driving. Starting and operation below freezing temperatures was a breakthrough for the technology. The current fuel cell technology operates at moderate temperatures of up to 80 degrees C. The comparable low temperature differential to the ambient temperature drives the need for large radiator areas. These vehicles offer three carbon-fiber tanks on board the vehicle that store 4.
HydroGen4 uses a fuel cell stack with proton exchange membranes PEM that deliver maximum electric power of 93 kW. The existing literature and present conditions highlight the need for revised analyses of costs and emissions of vehicles. Changing framework conditions e. Due to a lack of data most existing studies refer to virtual electric vehicles.
But since there are more electric vehicles in the market today, analyses need to be extended and reconsidered with data of real existing vehicles. Therefore, this study combines inputs from established studies with data of real existing vehicles to achieve high relevance and data quality of the results. Future technological developments are focused and supported by the consideration of different years of acquisition and scenario analyses.
Assumptions for the calculations were discussed and validated within the NET-ELAN project within the consortium and in project workshops with experts from industry and research centres including engineers, economic and social scientists. Calculation results of the updated cost-model and emissions were discussed in internal workshops with researchers from the Chair of Production Engineering of E-Mobility Components, RWTH Aachen University to review the plausibility of the results. Objects of observation Vehicles Electric vehicles are compared to gasoline driven internal combustion engine vehicles ICE as reference vehicles in the compact class, subcompact class and micro car class.
The smaller car classes are especially considered because an increase of electric vehicles especially in these classes is predicted. For electric vehicles in all classes exclusively battery electric vehicles BEV are considered. Those vehicles have an electric engine and a battery to store a relevant amount of energy S.
The battery is only charged from the grid and by means of recuperation. Hybrid electric vehicles HEV that combine an electric engine with a combustion engine are not considered. Linssen et al. Emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels are linked to hybrid electric vehicles due to the combustion engine. Within the car classes a focus is put on the comparability of vehicles, including comparable technique and utility number of persons, load capacity, etc. The considered vehicles in this study are available on the German car market today or in case of some electric vehicles in the near future.
Models are chosen with the smallest engine and standard equipment. Vehicles in the compact class refer to a VW Golf 1. Vehicles in the micro car class refer to a VW Up! For the subcompact class a VW Polo 1. In this class no corresponding electric vehicle exist until today. Technical data is assumed as interpolation between the compact and micro car class. Thereby, a virtual VW e-Polo is developed within the model.
This also includes the energy consumption of vehicles referring to the new European drive cycle NEDC. Furthermore, the consumption of auxiliary consumers additionally accounts for 2. Emissions The analysis of emissions concentrates on greenhouse gas emissions as CO2 or CO2e as its equivalents greenhouse gas potential of different greenhouse gases in relation to CO2 refer to Lashof and Ahuja Local emissions are not considered within this study.
Emissions are considered within the production and operation phase of vehicles. Emissions in the production phase of vehicles refer to the study of Notter et al. Emissions in the operation phase are the result of energy production and energy use. For energy production emissions include plant construction, transport and resource extraction. The emission factors are assumed with reference to in-depth analyses of power plant construction, operation and decommissioning of diverse energy production technologies Frischknecht, ; Pehnt, ; Sovacool, Neodymium is not considered in the scope of this study.
The section is closing with a break-even analysis considering the necessary kilometres km to achieve comparable emissions over the life cycle of BEV and ICE. In a second step the total cost of ownership TCO of vehicles is analysed. Again, the section considers necessary km to achieve comparable costs in a break-even analysis.
A third step examines external costs. Frame of the analysis The analyses are carried out for different years of acquisition to display and account for cost and technology developments. After a technology leap is possible and assumed. Values are kept constant to the level of Frischknecht Statistisches Bundesamt Greenpeace Energy eG A total lifetime of 11 years is assumed starting from the acquisition year with yearly driving distances of 11, km Kunert and Radke, , displaying the average yearly driving distance of gasoline driven vehicles in Germany in Furthermore, the lifetime of the battery is assumed to be 11 years or more.
In general, the power and lifetime of the battery depends on a variety of facts like driving performance, driving behaviour, charging behaviour, temperature, or the use of auxiliary consumers. The paper assumes the case of initial battery purchase. In contrast, a few companies e. Renault provide business models to lease the battery. However, a leasing of the battery transfers the costs of the battery over the lifetime.
Higher total costs for the battery are likely to occur due to higher discount rates and additional costs of warranty and guarantees. A change of the battery during the lifetime of vehicles is not considered. Analyses are conducted for cars in private ownership. Private and external costs resulting from emissions are calculated.
Costs for the government or the industries are not part of the analysis. All taxes are included into the assumed costs. Calculation of vehicle emissions Emissions of vehicle production Vehicle production emissions refer to Notter et al. Based on a VW Golf emissions are clustered in the following three main vehicle subassemblies: glider, drivetrain and battery. Electric and combustion engine vehicles contain a similar glider which leads to an equal glider emission unit. A constant capacity is assumed for further developments, resulting in decreasing battery weight and thereby decreasing emissions.
Emissions of vehicle operation The emissions due to fuel combustion are chemically given 2. The burning of one litre fuel causes in total 2. Emissions resulting from electric driving are determined by the emissions of electricity production. Under the current perspective this scenario seems to be the most likely one. This scenario presents the effect that the energy transition to RES takes place slower than under current political prospects expected. This development is imaginable, but not desirable under an environmental perspective.
In this case, differences in the costs structures of vehicles can be elucidated. Purchase decisions for vehicles depend on a variety of factors. Still, costs of vehicles display one of the most important criteria for the purchase decision. Anyhow, it has to be clearly stated that other factors e. Costs of acquisition include costs of standard components and new components for electric vehicles battery, electric engine and power electronics. The vehicle purchasing price therefore consists of the drive train, car body, power electronics, charger as well as the battery and is calculated in the model based on assumptions of Blesl et al.
Cost increases for standard components of 0. The calculated model purchasing price of today matches very well to the current price of the considered existing vehicles on the German car market. For the calculation of TCO this analysis is focusing on mobility costs MC to display and compare the complete costs of vehicles in relation to their driving performance. One-time costs are distributed equally over the whole lifetime by an annuity factor. Reductions mostly result from decreasing battery prices, which can be clearly observed in the past years.
Lower battery production costs are possible because of increased worldwide production volumes and research and development in the production process. Nevertheless, recent predictions for battery price developments vary strongly between optimistic and pessimistic scenarios. Energy prices Energy price developments are based on the product price predictions following Nitsch et al. Consumer prices for today are assumed to consist of the product price 0.
A linear correlation between the development of the product price and the consumer price is assumed for the calculations. The grid charge and remaining taxes and fees e. Thus, the developments in product prices in future only affect the variable consumer price share. A moderate and a high price scenario is assumed and examined to show differences in energy price developments Table 2. Maintenance and insurance The cost of maintenance are included in the model according to Diez ICE bear higher spare part costs because of the exhaust system and clutch as well as higher maintenance costs due to engine oil and spark plugs.
Maintenance costs account for 4. Battery price development. Spare part price BMW S. The costs of damages through CO2 depend on the total amount of worldwide emissions. Costs are expressed as marginal abatement costs with reference to a reduction goal, calculated in average costs per ton CO2.
Due to differences in this goals and different time horizons, estimations of this costs differ in a wide range Brenck et al. This also demonstrates the high level of uncertainty linked with the calculation of external costs of CO2. To address uncertainties, three different cases of abatement costs of CO2 are derived and considered in the calculations of this study.
It is assumed that these costs stay constant. Results Results of the calculations are presented for emissions and costs of vehicles. Both sections indicate total values as well as a break-even analyses depending on annual driving distances to identify advantages of vehicles for special purposes.
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Emissions Production emissions Nowadays as well as in the mediate and long term future the calculations show that ICE face an advantage in the production emissions Fig. Due to the increasing energy density of batteries, the prospective BEV emissions will decrease during time. Nevertheless, even in production emissions of electric vehicles will still be higher. Life cycle emissions For the combination of the production and operation phase, the BEV emissions are strongly dependant on the form of the electricity production. Electric driving emissions only occur because of RES-plant construction, which are comparably low.
Production and operation emissions. Table 3 Relative emission advantage of BEV. The break-even distance is determined by the intersection point of both linear slopes. In contrast, the slope for ICE inclines steeper, which is explained by the higher variable emissions. For all car classes break-even emissions are around an annual driving distance of km.
With this, electric vehicles show their potential in total emission reduction. Table 4 shows the annual break-even distances of the vehicles dependant on the electricity scenarios. While nowadays the break-even distance is at km per year and below, in medium-term this value can rise up to km per year in the pessimistic scenario 2. In long term even a higher volatility is observed. Within the optimistic scenario 1 and RES scenario 3 the break-even distances stay low and nearly constant during time, resulting in CO2 advantages of BEV.
In contrast, required annual distances in the pessimistic scenario 2 increase to 22, km. By this, the strong relation between electricity production and the environmental impact is expressed. Only an expansion of low-CO2 power plants will ensure the advantage of electrical vehicles. Total cost of ownership Mobility costs Private mobility costs of vehicles are presented in Table 5 as a result of the calculation of TCO under the consideration of different energy price scenarios. Considering vehicle acquisition in , the situation improves for electric vehicle.
In the long term view in electric vehicles show an advantage in all considered cases. VW e-UP! Total emissions as a function of annual driving. Table 4 Break-even analysis: Emissions [ km]. Nevertheless, higher initial costs cannot be compensated today under average driving conditions and only with the assumption of high energy prices in the medium term view. Break-even analysis Mobility costs are further presented as a function of annual driving to show required driving distances for equal mobility costs of BEV and ICE.
From , the compact class S.
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Mobility costs as a function of annual driving. Table 6 shows annual brake-even distances under consideration of moderate and high energy price developments. For today — still under positive conditions for electric vehicles high energy prices — the break-even distance exceeds the average annual driving. In future, the model predicts a decrease of break-even distances for BEV, resulting in distances below the average. External costs To extend the evaluation of private costs of vehicles with an environmental perspective, external costs have been additionally taken into account.
Table 7 displays external costs of vehicles bought today with assumed moderate energy price developments. The different scenarios of electricity production are considered as well as the different cases of abatement costs to monetary valuate emissions. Table 7 also displays the relative difference of external costs to the private mobility costs — i.
The external costs strongly depend on the assumed damage abatement costs for CO2 and on the expected emissions from electricity production. Resulting, the consideration of external costs can push the competitiveness of BEV, especially in the scenario of electricity production from RES. Consequences of different assumptions for external costs of CO2-emissions become furthermore visible if displayed as a function of annual driving.
Table 8 displays annual break-even distances for vehicles bought today under consideration of private mobility costs in comparison to private plus each of the three assumed cases of external costs. Thereby, the effects Table 6 Break-even analysis: Mobility costs [ km]. Year Today Compact class Subcompact class Micro car class Moderate energy prices High energy prices Moderate energy prices High energy prices Moderate energy prices High energy prices As mentioned above, in no case of assumed external costs additional costs are high enough to account for break-even distances below the average annual driving.
Nevertheless, with consideration of external costs break-even distances decrease, but are highly depended on the assumed abatement costs. Discussion Advantages of BEV and the role of assumptions The consideration of technology and price developments point out that results highly depend on the assumptions made and are only valid in the given frame of the analysis.
Therefore, the environmental advantage of BEV can only be secured in future developments with electricity production from low-CO2 power plants. An expansion of electric vehicles in Germany has to go hand in hand with the development of renewable energies to implement the potentials of BEV in the mobility sector. These uncertainties depend on market developments, the realisation of economies of scale and research results in the next years regarding materials and technologies. This highlights the need for further research especially in battery technology to achieve decreases in the costs of acquisition for BEV.
Today, no comparable taxes are included in the electricity price that can compensate the losses in equivalent amounts. One possibility is the increase of taxes on the electricity price for electric vehicles. But it thereby has to be considered, that the distinctive advantage of considerably lower costs of operation is being reduced or suspended. The concept of external costs The calculation of external costs — especially in the context of environmental costs — is linked with problems and high uncertainties and is therefore a broadly discussed subject for reference see e.
Brenck et al. External effects and related costs are in focus of transport policy. Especially climate change as a result of greenhouse gas emissions is one of the most important, but also one of the most uncertain external effects. The calculation of external costs is very sensitive to basic background assumptions. Problems are linked to environmental and economic uncertainties as well as the evaluation of external costs.
As a practical approach as also used in this paper marginal abatement costs are determined to account for external costs from emissions. The high degree of uncertainty becomes visible by the wide range of abatement costs as assumptions for the calculations.
The assumptions made and the related uncertainties have to be kept in mind when interpreting the results of the calculations of external and total mobility costs. Nevertheless, the concept of external costs as used in this paper displays an important approach to demonstrate the impact of emissions on the costs of vehicles.
These mileages can be achieved by vehicles that are regularly driven for longer distances.
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