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O'hara, Kieron and Hall, Wendy Four internets. Communications of the ACM. Email: kmo ecs. Other investigations closely related to art, science, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Since the 20th century professional philosophers contribute to society primarily as professors, researchers and writers. However, many of those who study philosophy in undergraduate or graduate programs contribute in the fields of law, journalism, politics, religion, science, business and various art and entertainment activities.
Retrieved 22 August The definition of philosophy is: "1. Jenny Teichmann and Katherine C. These problems are concerned with the nature of existence, knowledge, morality, reason and human purpose. Chicago, Ill. Quinton, Anthony, The ethics of philosophical practice, p. Each of the three elements in this list has a non-philosophical counterpart, from which it is distinguished by its explicitly rational and critical way of proceeding and by its systematic nature.
Everyone has some general conception of the nature of the world in which they live and of their place in it. Metaphysics replaces the unargued assumptions embodied in such a conception with a rational and organized body of beliefs about the world as a whole. Everyone has occasion to doubt and question beliefs, their own or those of others, with more or less success and without any theory of what they are doing.
Epistemology seeks by argument to make explicit the rules of correct belief formation. Everyone governs their conduct by directing it to desired or valued ends. Ethics, or moral philosophy, in its most inclusive sense, seeks to articulate, in rationally systematic form, the rules or principles involved. Greco, John, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Skepticism 1st ed. Oxford University Press. Glymour, Clark 10 April A Bradford Book. Retrieved 25 April Online Etymological Dictionary.
Retrieved 19 March Shapin, Steven 1 January The Scientific Revolution 1st ed. University Of Chicago Press. Briggle, Robert Frodeman and Adam. Sartwell, Crispin 1 January Zalta, Edward N. Beauty Spring ed. Loeb Classical Library. Retrieved 27 April Feyerabend, Paul; Hacking, Ian 11 May Against Method 4th ed. More, Thomas 8 May Courier Corporation. Retrieved 14 May An Unofficial "Daily Nous" Affiliate". Retrieved Philosophical inquiry is a central element in the intellectual history of many historical civilizations.
Socrates was a very influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom. Important topics covered by the Greeks included metaphysics with competing theories such as atomism and monism , cosmology, the nature of the well-lived life eudaimonia , the possibility of knowledge and the nature of reason logos.
With the rise of the Roman empire, Greek philosophy was also increasingly discussed in Latin by Romans such as Cicero and Seneca. Medieval philosophy 5th — 16th century is the period following the fall of the Roman empire and was dominated by the rise of Christianity and hence reflects Judeo-Christian theological concerns as well as retaining a continuity with Greco-Roman thought. Problems such as the existence and nature of God, the nature of faith and reason, metaphysics, the problem of evil were discussed in this period.
Some key Medieval thinkers include St. Philosophy for these thinkers was viewed as an aid to Theology ancilla theologiae and hence they sought to align their philosophy with their interpretation of sacred scripture. This period saw the development of Scholasticism, a text critical method developed in medieval universities based on close reading and disputation on key texts. The Renaissance — period saw increasing focus on classic Greco-Roman thought and on a robust Humanism.
Immanuel Kant. The 20th century saw the split between Analytic philosophy and Continental philosophy, as well as philosophical trends such as Phenomenology, Existentialism, Logical Positivism, Pragmatism and the Linguistic turn. The term was probably coined by the pre-Socratic thinker Pythagoras. Philosophy is the study of the general and fundamental nature of reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind and language.
Ancient Graeco-Roman philosophy is a period of Western philosophy, starting in the 6th century [c. From the above descriptions of philosophy we can see why and how philosophy as the study, the love, the friend of wisdom has been distracted and became concerned with numerous other types of investigations, speculations and concerns. What has language, mind, reason, knowledge, etc to do with wisdom? In one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge.
In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as "how are we to live" and "what is the nature of reality". A broad and impartial conception of philosophy then, finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality, morality and life in all world civilizations. At the end of , Hegel was the first philosopher to be appointed Professor by the State, namely by the Prussian Minister of Education, as an effect of Napoleonic reform in Prussia.
In the United States, the professionalisation grew out of reforms to the American higher-education system largely based on the German model. Bertrand Russell Within the last century, philosophy has increasingly become a professional discipline practiced within universities, like other academic disciplines. Accordingly, it has become less general and more specialized. In the view of one prominent recent historian: "Philosophy has become a highly organized discipline, done by specialists primarily for other specialists.
The number of philosophers has exploded, the volume of publication has swelled, and the subfields of serious philosophical investigation have multiplied. Not only is the broad field of philosophy today far too vast to be embraced by one mind, something similar is true even of many highly specialized subfields. Some philosophers argue that this professionalization has negatively affected the discipline.
The end result of professionalization for philosophy has meant that work being done in the field is now almost exclusively done by university professors holding a doctorate in the field publishing in highly technical, peer-reviewed journals. While it remains common among the population at large for a person to have a set of religious, political or philosophical views that they consider their "philosophy", these views are rarely informed by or connected to the work being done in professional philosophy today. Furthermore, unlike many of the sciences for which there has come to be a healthy industry of books, magazines, and television shows meant to popularize science and communicate the technical results of a scientific field to the general populace, works by professional philosophers directed at an audience outside the profession remain rare.
Both works became New York Times best sellers. It is unique both in its methods and in the nature and breadth of its subject matter. Philosophy pursues questions in every dimension of human life, and its techniques apply to problems in any field of study or endeavor. No brief definition expresses the richness and variety of philosophy. It may be described in many ways. It is a reasoned pursuit of fundamental truths, a quest for understanding, a study of principles of conduct.
It seeks to establish standards of evidence, to provide rational methods of resolving conflicts, and to create techniques for evaluating ideas and arguments. Philosophy develops the capacity to see the world from the perspective of other individuals and other cultures; it enhances one's ability to perceive the relationships among the various fields of study; and it deepens one's sense of the meaning and variety of human experience. This short description of philosophy could be greatly expanded, but let us instead illustrate some of the points.
As the systematic study of ideas and issues, philosophy may examine concepts and views drawn from science, art, religion, politics, or any other realm. Philosophical appraisal of ideas and issues takes many forms, but philosophical studies often focus on the meaning of an idea and on its basis, coherence, and relations to other ideas. What is it? What justifies it as a system of government? Can a democracy allow the people to vote away their own rights?
And how is it related to political liberty? Consider human knowledge. What is its nature and extent? Must we always have evidence in order to know? What can we know about the thoughts and feelings of others, or about the future? What kind of knowledge, if any, is fundamental? Similar kinds of questions arise concerning art, morality, religion, science, and each of the major areas of human activity. Philosophy explores all of them. It views them both microscopically and from the wide perspective of the larger concerns of human existence.
Traditional Subfields of Philosophy The broadest subfields of philosophy are most commonly taken to be logic, ethics, metaphysics, epistemology and the history of philosophy. Here is a brief sketch of each. Logic is concerned to provide sound methods for distinguishing good from bad reasoning. It helps us assess how well our premises support our conclusions, to see what we are committed to accepting when we take a view, and to avoid adopting beliefs for which we lack adequate reasons.
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Logic also helps us to find arguments where we might otherwise simply see a set of loosely related statements, to discover assumptions we did not know we were making, and to formulate the minimum claims we must establish if we are to prove or inductively support our point. Ethics takes up the meanings of our moral concepts—such as right action, obligation and justice—and formulates principles to guide moral decisions, whether in private or public life. What are our moral obligations to others? How can moral disagreements be rationally settled? What rights must a just society accord its citizens?
What constitutes a valid excuse for wrong-doing? Metaphysics seeks basic criteria for determining what sorts of things are real. Are there mental, physical, and abstract things such as numbers , for instance, or is there just the physical and the spiritual, or merely matter and energy? Are persons highly complex physical systems, or do they have properties not reducible to anything physical?
Epistemology concerns the nature and scope of knowledge. What does it mean to know the truth , and what is the nature of truth? What sorts of things can be known, and can we be justified in our beliefs about what goes beyond the evidence of our senses, such as the inner lives of others or events of the distant past? Is there knowledge beyond the reach of science? What are the limits of self-knowledge? The History of Philosophy studies both major philosophers and entire periods in the development of philosophy such as the Ancient, Medieval, Modern, Nineteenth Century, and Twentieth Century periods.
It seeks to understand great figures, their influence on others, and their importance for contemporary issues. The history of philosophy in a single nation is often separately studied, as in the case of American Philosophy. So are major movements within a nation, such as British Empiricism and German Idealism, as well as international movements with a substantial history, such as existentialism and phenomenology.
The history of philosophy not only provides insight into the other subfields of philosophy; it also reveals many of the foundations of Western Civilization. What follows is a sketch of some of the major ones. Philosophy of Mind. This subfield has emerged from metaphysical concerns with the mind and mental phenomena. The philosophy of mind addresses not only the possible relations of the mental to the physical for instance, to brain processes , but the many concepts having an essential mental element: belief, desire, emotion, feeling, sensation, passion, will, personality, and others.
A number of major questions in the philosophy of mind cluster in the area of action theory: What differentiates actions, such as raising an arm, from mere body movements, such as the rising of an arm? Must mental elements, for example intentions and beliefs, enter into adequate explanations of our actions, or can actions be explained by appeal to ordinary physical events?
And what is required for our actions to be free? Philosophy of Religion. Another traditional concern of metaphysics is to understand the concept of God, including special attributes such as being all-knowing, being all-powerful, and being wholly good.
Both metaphysics and epistemology have sought to assess the various grounds people have offered to justify believing in God. The philosophy of religion treats these topics and many related subjects, such as the relation between faith and reason, the nature of religious language, the relation of religion and morality, and the question of how a God who is wholly good could allow the existence of evil. Philosophy of Science. This is probably the largest subfield generated by epistemology.
Philosophy of science is usually divided into philosophy of the natural sciences and philosophy of the social sciences. It has recently been divided further, into philosophy of physics, biology, psychology, economics, and other sciences. Philosophy of science clarifies both the quest for scientific knowledge and the results yielded by that quest. It does this by exploring the logic of scientific evidence; the nature of scientific laws, explanations, and theories; and the possible connections among the various branches of science.
How, for instance, is psychology related to brain biology, and biology to chemistry? And how are the social sciences related to the natural sciences. Subfields of Ethics. From ethics, too, have come major subfields. Political Philosophy concerns the justification—and limits—of governmental control of individuals; the meaning of equality before the law; the basis of economic freedom; and many other problems concerning government.
It also examines the nature and possible arguments for various competing forms of political organization, such as laissez-faire capitalism, welfare democracy capitalistic and socialistic , anarchism, communism, and fascism. Social Philosophy, often taught in combination with political philosophy which it overlaps , treats moral problems with large-scale social dimensions. Among these are the basis of compulsory education, the possible grounds for preferential treatment of minorities, the justice of taxation, and the appropriate limits, if any, on free expression in the arts. The Philosophy of Law explores such topics as what law is, what kinds of laws there are, how law is or should be related to morality, and what sorts of principles should govern punishment and criminal justice in general.
Medical Ethics addresses many problems arising in medical practice and medical science. Business Ethics addresses such questions as how moral obligations may conflict with the profit motive and how these conflicts may be resolved. Other topics often pursued are the nature and scope of the social responsibilities of corporations, their rights in a free society, and their relations to other institutions. Philosophy of Art Aesthetics. This is one of the oldest subfields. It concerns the nature of art, including both the performing arts and painting, sculpture, and literature.
Major questions in aesthetics include how artistic creations are to be interpreted and evaluated, and how the arts are related to one another, to natural beauty, and to morality, religion, science, and other important elements of human life. Philosophy of Language. This field has close ties to both epistemology and metaphysics. It treats a broad spectrum of questions about language: the nature of meaning, the relations between words and things, the various theories of language learning, and the distinction between literal and figurative uses of language.
Since language is crucial in nearly all human activity, the philosophy of language can enhance our understanding both of other academic fields and of much of what we ordinarily do. Other Subfields. There are many other subfields of philosophy, and it is in the nature of philosophy as critical inquiry to develop new subfields when new directions in the quest for knowledge, or in any other area of human activity, raise new intellectual problems.
The Uses of Philosophy General Uses of Philosophy Much of what is learned in philosophy can be applied in virtually any endeavor. This is both because philosophy touches on so many subjects and, especially, because many of its methods are usable in any field. General Problem Solving. The study of philosophy enhances, in a way no other activity does, one's problem-solving capacities.
It helps one to analyze concepts, definitions, arguments and problems. It contributes to one's capacity to organize ideas and issues, to deal with questions of value, and to extract what is essential from masses of information. It helps one both to distinguish fine differences between views and to discover common ground between opposing positions. And it helps one to synthesize a variety of views or perspectives into a unified whole. Communication Skills.
Philosophy also contributes uniquely to the development of expressive and communicative powers. It provides some of the basic tools of self- expression—for instance, skills in presenting ideas through well-constructed, systematic arguments—that other fields either do not use, or use less extensively. It helps one to express what is distinctive of one's view; enhances one's ability to explain difficult material; and helps one to eliminate ambiguities and vagueness from one's writing and speech. Philosophy provides training in the construction of clear formulations, good arguments, and apt examples.
It thereby helps one develop the ability to be convincing. One learns to build and defend one's own views, to appreciate competing positions, and to indicate forcefully why one considers one's own views preferable to alternatives. These capacities can be developed not only through reading and writing in philosophy, but also through the philosophical dialogue, in and outside the classroom, that is so much a part of a thoroughgoing philosophical education. Writing Skills. Writing is taught intensively in many philosophy courses, and many regularly assigned philosophical texts are unexcelled as literary essays.
Philosophy teaches interpretive writing through its examination of challenging texts, comparative writing through emphasis on fairness to alternative positions, argumentative writing through developing students' ability to establish their own views, and descriptive writing through detailed portrayal of concrete examples: the anchors to which generalizations must be tied.
Striker and technique, then, are emphasized in philosophical writing.
Originality is also encouraged, and students are generally urged to use their imagination and develop their own ideas. The Uses of Philosophy in Educational Pursuits The general uses of philosophy just described are obviously of great academic value. It should be clear that the study of philosophy has intrinsic rewards as an unlimited quest for the understanding of important, challenging problems.
But philosophy has further uses in deepening an education, both in college and in the many activities, professional and personal, that follow graduation. Understanding Other Disciplines. Philosophy is indispensable for this. Many important questions about a discipline, such as the nature of its concepts and its relation to other disciplines, do not belong to that discipline, are not usually pursued in it, and are philosophical in nature. Philosophy of science, for instance, is needed to supplement the understanding of the natural and social sciences which one derives from scientific work itself.
Philosophy of literature and philosophy of history are of similar value in understanding the humanities, and philosophy of art is important in understanding the arts. Philosophy is, moreover, essential in assessing the various standards of evidence used by other disciplines. Since all fields of knowledge employ reasoning and must set standards of evidence, logic and epistemology have a general bearing on all these fields. Development of Sound Methods of Research and Analysis. Still another value of philosophy in education is its contribution to one's capacity to frame hypotheses, do research, and put problems into manageable form.
Philosophical thinking strongly emphasizes clear formulation of ideas and problems, selection of relevant data, and objective methods for assessing ideas and proposals. It also emphasizes development of a sense of the new directions suggested by the hypotheses and questions one encounters in doing research. Philosophers regularly build on both the successes and failures of their predecessors. A person with philosophical training can readily learn to do the same in any field. Students are understandably preoccupied with getting their first job, but even from a narrow vocational point of view it would be short-sighted to concentrate on that at the expense of developing potential for success and advancement once hired.
What gets graduates initially hired may not yield promotions or carry them beyond their first position, particularly given how fast the needs of many employers alter with changes in social and economic patterns. It is therefore crucial to see beyond what a job description specifically calls for. Philosophy need not be mentioned among a job's requirements in order for the benefits derivable from philosophical study to be appreciated by the employer, and those benefits need not even be explicitly appreciated in order to be effective in helping one advance. It should also be emphasized here that—as recent studies show—employers want, and reward, many of the capacities which the study of philosophy develops: for instance, the ability to solve problems, to communicate, to organize ideas and issues, to assess pros and cons, and to boil down complex data.
These capacities represent transferable skills. They are transferable not only from philosophy to non-philosophy areas, but from one non- philosophical field to another. For that reason, people trained in philosophy are not only prepared to do many kinds of tasks; they can also cope with change, or even move into new careers, more readily than others. Regarding current trends in business, a writer in the New York Times reported that "businessmen are coming to appreciate an education that at its best produces graduates who can write and think clearly and solve problems" June 23, A recent long-term study by the Bell Telephone Company, moreover, determined that majors in liberal arts fields, in which philosophy is a central discipline, "continue to make a strong showing in managerial skills and have experienced considerable business success" Career Patterns, by Robert E.
The study concluded that "there is no need for liberal arts majors to lack confidence in approaching business careers. Wall Street Journal, February 2, As all this suggests, there are people trained in philosophy in just about every field. They have gone not only into such professions as teaching at all levels , medicine, and law, but into computer science, management, publishing, sales, criminal justice, public relations, and other fields.
Some professionally trained philosophers are also on legislative staffs, and the work of some of them, for a senior congressman, prompted him to say: It seems to me that philosophers have acquired skills which are very valuable to a member of Congress. The ability to analyze a problem carefully and consider it from many points of view is one.
Another is the ability to communicate ideas clearly in a logically compelling form. A third is the ability to handle the many different kinds of problems which occupy the congressional agenda at any time. Lee H. Hamilton, 9th District, Indiana, March 25, The first concerns the value of philosophy for vocational training. The second applies to the whole of life.
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First, philosophy can yield immediate benefits for students planning postgraduate work. As law, medical, business, and other professional school faculty and admissions personnel have often said, philosophy is excellent preparation for the training and later careers of the professionals in question. In preparing to enter such fields as computer science, management, or public administration, which, like medicine, have special requirements for post-graduate study, a student may of course major or minor both in philosophy and some other field.
The second point here is that the long-range value of philosophical study goes far beyond its contribution to one's livelihood. Philosophy broadens the range of things one can understand and enjoy. It can give one self-knowledge, foresight, and a sense of direction in life. It can provide, to one's reading and conversation, special pleasures of insight. It can lead to self- discovery, expansion of consciousness, and self-renewal. Through all of this, and through its contribution to one's expressive powers, it nurtures individuality and self-esteem.
Its value for one's private life can be incalculable; its benefits for one's public life as a citizen can be immeasurable. The Philosophy Curriculum What a philosophy course is like. Philosophy courses differ greatly from one to another, depending on the instructor, the topics, and other factors. But some generalizations are possible. Typically, philosophy teachers encourage students to be critical, to develop their own ideas, and to appreciate both differences between things that appear alike and similarities between things that seem utterly different.
Commonly, then, philosophy instructors emphasize not only what is said in the readings, but why it is said; whether or not the reasons given for believing it are good; and what the students themselves think about the matter. One might thus be asked not only what Kant said about capital punishment and why, but whether his case was sound. One might also be encouraged to formulate, and give reasons for, one's own view on the problem. Students might compare and contrast two philosophers, noting where the two agree or disagree, and perhaps indicating and justifying a preference for one of the views.
One could be asked to study non-philosophers, say, legal theorists, to bring out and assess their philosophical assumptions; and one might be asked to view several philosophers in historical perspective. Characteristically, there is much room for creativity and for choice of approach; and philosophy is unique in the way it nurtures this creativity and freedom within broad but definite standards of clarity, reasoning, and evaluation. Introductory Courses. One might begin in philosophy either with a general introduction or with an introduction to a subfield, such as ethics, logic, philosophy of religion, or philosophy of art.
For students whose main aim is to get to know the field rather than, say, advance their thinking on ethical matters, a general introduction is often the best starting point. These introductions are most often built around important philosophical problems. General introductions to philosophy may also be built around major texts, especially writings by great philosophers. Through their writings, all the problems just mentioned and many others might be discussed.
Regarding introductory courses in subfields of philosophy, such as ethics, logic, or philosophy of religion, these typically introduce students not only to the designated subfield, but to some general philosophical methods. Courses in subfields vary greatly in their methods and in breadth of topic, however, and students proceeding directly from such courses to those at the next level should first assess how much general philosophical background they have obtained. Logic courses in particular vary greatly in how much general introduction to philosophy they provide.
Intermediate and Advances Courses in Philosophy. At these levels philosophy courses differ considerably in scope, method, and prerequisites. Intermediate and advanced courses are obviously needed for students to get the full benefits, described above, of philosophical education, but what constitutes a good selection at these levels varies greatly from one person to another. It should not be thought, however, that advances courses in philosophy are generally designed just for majors or that they interest only them. For instance, advanced philosophy of science courses are often meant to interest science majors and may have, for them, few if any prerequisites ; and advanced courses in the philosophy of art aesthetics are designed partly for students in art, music, and other related fields.
Similar points hold for philosophy of religion, philosophy of law, medical ethics, and many others. Sample Majors. A normal course of study for a thirty-hour major would include some work in each of the traditional core areas: epistemology, ethics, history of philosophy, logic, and metaphysics. In many institutions a student might meet this requirement by taking, say, two introductory courses the first year; in the second year, history of ancient and history of modern philosophy, together with at least one course in a subfield, such as ethics or philosophy of religion; and, in the last two years, intermediate and advanced courses that cover the remaining areas, with extra depth where one's interests are strongest.
Many institutions require logic of philosophy majors, and it is a good idea to take it early in the course of the major. Such broad areas as metaphysics , epistemology, and ethics need not be covered in courses by those names. They might be treated in studies of major philosophers, in seminars on special problems, or in related subfields, such as philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, and social or political philosophy. For students intending to pursue post-graduate study, many variants of the pattern just suggested may be desirable.
Those continuing in philosophy should seek a good combination of depth and breadth, which can be achieved in many ways. For others, particularly but not exclusively these planning post-graduate study, here are some examples of valuable courses beyond general introductions: Journalism and Communication.
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